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R. D. S 

will present on 


AUGUST 25th 
and subsequent nights 


A farce in three acts 








|HE feverisli fortnight is over — Elections, 
medal-meetings, Hampstead-Heath — are all 
things of the past and the Camp feels rather 
like a lot of school-boys at the end of the 
holidays. We nmst thank Mr. Powell for his 
letter to the Home Government and though the 
reply was somewhat of a cold douche yet it has done us good, 
it has settled us down. Now that we are approaching our 
Ruhleben anniversary, we may look around and count the 
changes. They are very many and very good. We all 
grouse, I. R. C. too, at our Camp officials, our Ruhleben 
Supermen, but consider the Camp as it was a year ago and 
as it is to-day and one cannot help realising that Sterling 
work has been done by someone. Well, Mr. Official, be 
you a full-blown arm-band or button-man or only the secre- 
tary of a mere Society, please realise that our bark is worse 
than our bite, that when you do good work we shan't say 
much, if anything at all, but when you do bad work we 
shall say "the divil of a lot". You can't do what you 
would like, but in working to make Ruhleben life more 
endurable for some of your fellow-prisoners, you are "doing 
your bit" and a "good bit" at that. 


VO\J may not believe your eyes, but we throw 1 a big bou- 
quet — one of black tulips too — at Mr. Powell for arranging a 
Cinema show for the Camp. 

WE throw a bouquet at you all for buying up our last 
number as you did. 


I Societe I 

I Dramatique Francaise I 

| Programme des Soirees de Debüt | 

I les 18, 19. 20. et 21 flout, 1915. | 

1 Orchestre: Ouvertüre de Si j'etais Roi fldam | 

| (sous la direction de M, Peeb!es-Conn). | 


| Comedie en un flcte de Tristan Bernard j 

| Mise en scene par H. Q. HOPKIRK | 

1 • Orchestre; a) Quand i'amour meurt. 0. Cremieu^c | 

| b) Rubade Printaniere. P, Lacome | 

= llllllll I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I II I II I I tili I I I I II II II I I 1 I 1 I I I I I i 1 I I 1 I I II I I I II I II I II I I 1 I I I I II IUI I llllll = 


| Comedie en un ficte d'Mndre Monezy-Eon | 

| Mise en scene par H. (3. HOPKIRK | 

= iiiiiii 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n i ii 1 1 1 1 1 iiiii i un i im 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 i um ii im iiiiiiiiiiiiiiu ii i in 1 1 1 1 ii i um 1 1 iiiiii — 

| En Septembre la S. D. F. R, | 

| presentera une piece du repertoire actuel du | 

| theatre de la "RENAISSANCE'' de Paris: | 


| Comedie en 4 actes de Paul Qavault | 

| Mise en scene par H. MLERED BELL | 

^K^l IIJIlIllilllflllltllllllllllllllfllfTlIIlltlflllflllillllllllllllllllllllfltlllJllllilllllllTlIlllllllllllllffffllllllflfllllflllllllflllllflllllllllll ff 111 IllilUllltl^S 


y^UESDAY night! Why, that is the Debating Soeiety's 
^ night. You have not heard the Debating Society yet, have 
you, Phoebe? Come along. It's very populär, and there is 
always a crowd." 

"What are they going to debate on to-night ?" 

"Debate ! They're not going to debate. Whatever makes 
you think they are going to debate, dear. They have long 
given up the idea of debating. They hold anecdote evenings 
now. You know, first the chairman — that is Butterpat — 
gets up and teils a very dull and silly yarn, and then a lot 
of other* people, knowing they can't do worse, try to improve 
on him — with but indifferent success. Or eise, they give 
dramatic representations of scenes from Dickens." 

"Well ! We cÄnnot get in to-night, I'm afraid" said Phoebe, 
as we approached the evidently overcrowded hall, from which 
shouts, groans, and the frequently repeated yells of Sit down' 

But I know better, and led her through a window and 
so on to the back of the stage, where a gorgeous scene met 
our eyes. On the platform sat all Ruhleben's brightest and 
best, facing a huge sea of cheering, gesticulating, worshipping 

"There, Phoebe" I said, pointing to the former collection, 
"is the Rahleben Debating Society". 

"Magnificent," she whispered, "but what are they doing ?" 
A neighbour enlightened us. "It's a bye-election" he said, 

"and they are going to elect the candidates to-night. Look, 

Buttercup is doing the mayor." 

"Who's Butternut, that little man in the black and red gown?" 
"Hush, Phoebe, you must not call Butterpip a little man, 
he is a big bug here." 


"Well ! whatever he is, the crowd certainly are not listening 
to him." 

"Why should they? The chances are they've heard it all 
before, I don't suppose they want to listen anyway. They've 
probably come to amuse themselves." 

"Oh ! Well amuse them all right," said the stranger. "There 
are the cand.idates over there. One Boss, a certain Gastang, 
and Cohen." 

"Cohen! I know the name. Which Cohen?" 

"The Cohen." I noticed my Informant had a red piece 
of ribbon in his buttonhole. 

"Hardly a very illuminating description." I murmured, but 
Phoebe discreetly changed the subjeci. 

"What is the bye-election for?" she asked. 

"Oh! It ? s only a joke." 

"I don't see the joke." 

"We have not seen the candidates yet" I pointed out, 

"It's a splendid idea. There is no doubt about that. It 
will keep the whole Camp amused for a week." 

The stranger seemed enthusiastic. 

;;wüi it?" 

"Rather. We know how to tickle the Camp." 

"And in the meantime," Phoebe pointed out, "the meeting 
are making such a noise, they won't even give the poor old 
gentleman a chance to start talking." 

"Who ? Butterpat ? He s all right. You wait and see." 

"We go to bed at a quarter to ten" I hinted. 

"Oh, you will be aching with laughter long before then." 

We came away from the meeting convinced that the De- 
bating Society at any rate thought the Election was going to 
entertain the Camp for a week. 

Going back to the Grand Stand a week later to hear 
the result of the polling, we passed the same gentleman again. 

"Hulloh!" called Phoebe, "Did you keep the Camp 

"Be quiet," I exclaimed, "Don't hurt the poor fellow's 

"Why don't you think it was a success ?" asked Phoebe, 
as we wandered in. There was no difficulty in getting a place 
this time. Perhaps the rain had kept the crowd away. 

"It was worthy of the promoters in every way, I cannot 
say more." 

(Continued on page 6, 

"You cannot say less. But listen to what they are saying, 
I can't hear a word." 

"It's only old Butterdish saying that Castang has got in 
by a large majority, while poor old Boss, the most amusing 
of the lot, is last. It was bad luck for H IM that the meetings 
were stopped owing to a slight misunderstanding." 

"Did you not like the meetings, I thought they were awfully 
funny." Put in the stranger. 

"Hm! Some of the interruptions were. The Debating So- 
ciety certainly owes a debt of gratitude to the public for the 
spirited way the latter tried to play up to their lead." 

"But some of the posters were good?" 

"And some were copied." 

"Most of them were original, so there." 

"Oh yes, all the bad ones were." 

"Then, don't you think the whole campaign was worth 

"Worth while, I should think it was — to the candidates. 
It was a simply splendid ad for them. They should have been 
made to subscribe the necessary funds." 
^ "You expect too much." 

"I merely expected a little amusement after the definite 
assurance last week that we were going to have some fun, 
and — " 


"I am still waiting to be amused." 

, T. G. 

^ *\£f<2 ß lectfhr^.- 

"DON'T ß.R.A.'Y." 

(With apologies to Mr. John Croa\er and his chorus of Ruhleben youths). 


These Verses may not he sung at hadge association meetings without permission 

of the Chairman. 

OH, I don't buy milk and honey, 'cause Im saving up my money 
To join the "B.R.A." and other "corps" 
"Twill be a dreadful blow, if I've no badge to show 
When I stroll along the Strand to Charing Cross. 
I'd be "cut" by "Brothers" Halpin, Buttersootch or other spalpeen 

'Ould Ireland, Wales, Australia and the Jews. 
While my present "good relations " with the "actresses" the "Batons" 
The Earl and Dear old "Pea-Nuts" makes me sing: 

Save up boys to pay for Badges 
Don't buy butter, cheese or ham 
We want the people there to think in Leicester Square 

That we're the boys that — helped to save old England 
Order one to match your watch-chain 
Get prompt deüv'ry if you can 

When Walking with your "gel" you'll feel a blooming "swell" 
Your badge will mark you as — a MAN. 

Our Badges will remind us of the things we leave behind us 

When we pack our traps and cross the briny foam, 
Of the meetings and the screechings of the BRA'ings and the bleatings 

And our criticims of the folk at home. 
Of our peaceful deck-chair days and "the parting of the ways" 

When some "brothers" shifted "Digs" to Barrack One. 
Of the alterations lately and the "Dear Departed" Blakely 

With his badges which made us wish we'd all got one. So — 
Line up boys and order Badges 
Buy big gold ones if you can 

We want the people there to think in Leicester Square 
That we're the boys who — never wrote for parcels 

Back, back, back, again in England 
Then well "swank" as tho' we'd fought 
And teil 'em clear and loud of that Ruhleben crowd 
That thought it "earned" the badges that it BOUGHT. 

B. C. 

IT is not true that "The Miracle" is to be pr'oduced 
in the Camp, but Adler has resigned his post on the Enter- 
tainments Committee. 


/ °^sn 

THE letter from Mr. Hersee suggesting that a censor of 
Plays be attached to the Entertainments Committee is rather 
amusing. Really, Mr. Hersee, you ought to knovv that the 
Entertainment Committee has been the Censor all along ! Bui 
not a one-man censor show, we have enough Brookfields in 
the Camp already and we knovv hovv numerous the Man- 
chester Society is. 

WE have had high words with our tarne humourists, foi 
not supplying their quantum of jokes for this issue. They pleaded 
in excuse, that they expected to have an overdose of el : ec- 
tion wit, but. — 

WE are requested by the Camp Treasurer to ask the 
Camp to keep its paper money clean. They seil purses at 
the canteen ! (the canteen is not paying for this). 

THE Irish players are going to give us "The Playboy 
of the Western World" by Synge. We are looking forward 
to it after having seen the last Irish production. 

WE are delighted to hear that "The Trial by Jury" the 
old Gilbert and Sullivan favourite is in course of rehearsal. 

THE R. X. D. asks us to apologise for the late delivery 
of some of the Camp magazines ordered by them but is pre- 
pared to guarantee that in future all copies will be delivered at 
at your boxes or on your bed in the loft before 9.30 of the 
morning of publication. 

ßy the way, no one thanked the Sports Committee at the 
Sports Prize-giving but it was just an unfortunate oversight, 
we :all know how they worked and appreciate them accordingly. 

(Continued on page 10) 

=C/rZc^o /l/ 


MAY we make one more plea 
that the Captains and the Entertain- 
ments Committee should sanction the 
ordering of theatre-tickets through the 
R. X. D. The box-office authorities 
maintain that this would give the 
better-off people an advantage over 
those who cannot afford the extra 
10 pfennigs for the post. May we 
point out that those who can afford 
50 pfennig theatre-tickets can all 
afford to pay the extra 10 pfennigs 
for the postage, so that it is not 
giving the people with the cash any 
undue advantage and the matter need 
not affect the cheaper seats. Whynot 
avoid that curse of Ruhleben, 
lining-up, if one can? And for the 
Entertainments Committee to suddenly 
take up the culgels for those who 
cannot afford to pay an extra 
10 pfennigs for their seats is really 
humorous ! 



THIS letter has been sent to the Captains by the following 
Societies: The Ruhleben Dramatic Society and the French, Irish, 
and German Dramatic Societies, The Arts & Science Union and 
the Musical Society. 


At a Joint 'meeting held to-day of representatives of the 
undersigned societies, the follawing resolutions were passed: — 

1) That the present Entertainments Committee should be 
dissolved, and a new committee should be iconstituted^ 
consisting of a Chairman from the Captains' body, a per- 
manent Secretary without a vote, to be appointed by th'e 
Committee, and a riepresentative from each of the following 
Societies Concerned, viz: — Ruhleben Dramatic Society, the 
Irish, French and German Societies, the Musical Society, 
the Arts and Science Union, and the Variety Artistes. ' 

2) With the formation of this Committee, it takes tupon 
itself the revision of all offices connected with the Hall 
and entertainmients therein. 

3) That in vieiw of the fact that the money at present 
in possession of the Entertainments Committee has been 
earned by the societies represented at this meeting, we 
desire the Entertainments Committee to exhibit a balance- 
sheet of all imonies that have passed through their hand's 
since their formation. 

4) That this letter be taken to^ the Captains by MessrsL 
Davis, Bonhote and Symilie as delegates of this meeting. 

Signed for the various Societies. 

TO GRUMBLE is the Englishman's privilege, but certain views 
expressed to us by the amphibious "Sir Thomas" appear to 
be not only sound, but also widely held by the inarticulate man 


in the Compound. "These 'ere entertainments and clubs 'II have 
to shut |up in the winter. Fve nothing ^gainst theatre shows 
at the rigfit time and when I've got the cash, but this 'ere 
Entertainments Committee seems to think they 're the one thing 
we live for now. All we chaps want, and all we can pay for, 
is a place to smoke in, free, without getting wet, or all the 
baccy blown out of your pipe. And since these people took 
possession of the Hall to get their name up at our expense 
you can't go there for your evening smoke without standing 
in a queue and paying. And they chuck you out every five 
minutes through the day. Last winter we could stand under 
the sheds foy the canteen, and in the other shanties round the 
Compound. But now every d — bit of shelter's been collared 
by some Committee, the Dramati es, or this club, or that society, 
or those private persons. Go up on the Grandstand! No thanks! 
I'd rather get wet in the (Compound. Look at the Detbates,, 
the 're rotten, but they're always füll, just because they 're 
freei. I teil you, there'll be trouble if we can't have that hall 
in the winter." 

Would it not be possible to :erect a shed in the 
Compound, say round the Rolbey boiler, where one could 
smoke without undue exposure to the elements. It would be 
no luxury, but would be cheaper rhan ;say a musical ptay. 
The rents pr(esumably paid into the Camp Funds by the numer- 
ous clubs, for the exdlusive use of space allotted to the Camp 
as a whole, anight well be devoted to this purpose. Besides, 
there must be plenty of money if we can aff'ord elections and 
gambling fairs. 

IT is rumoured that Shaw's 'Don Juan in Hell' will be 
fortheoming later on from the Dramatic Society. Mr. Leigh Henry 
is said to'have designed a remarkably fine scene, of which the 
prominent feature is a largie broad road winding away up to 
the world of the living. Mr. Henry will provide the material 
for paving the road himself. 

CUSTOMER (at tobaeco stores): Tin of 
Salmon please ! 

SALESMAN: Now you're mistaken, this is 
the local Salmon and Gluckstein but we don't 
seil our proprietor tinned. 

CONVERSATION overheard between two 
firemen, who had seemingly been disappointed 
by recent lecture recitals. They stood before 
the announcement of Mr. Bainton's admirabte 
English Madrigal Concert and had evidently 
littl'e knowledge of Musical Art Forms. Said! 
one: VWe Ve had some mad shbws in this 
blamed Camp but this is the limit of pottyness 
to advertise a lecture as sucli, and expect any 
sane fol'k to attend." 



! UNION 1 

A French circle has been formed, under the 
direction of Mr. Balfour. It meets on Tuesdays 
at 3 P. M. We have to thank many gentlemen 
whose native language is French or who are 
proficient in the language, for their attendance. 
It is of great help to students of the language. 

The work on the Loft of Barrack VI has had 
to be interrupted as the authorities require to 
make use of it for housing purposes. As the 
winte'r will bring an almost complete interruption 
of our work, as well as that of the school, unless 
we are successful in obtaining accommodation, 
we are therefore using every effort to this 
end. Proper accommodation would enable the 
majority of persons in this Camp to equip them- 
selves for a better position, when they leave, and 
we trust therefore that everyone in a position to 
assht in this matter, will do so. 



The R.D.S. was scarcely recognisable in these three plays, 
the preparations were so -quiet and unobtrusive that one lounged 

up to the Grand Stand patiently bene- 
volent, expecting an evening of qcca- 
sionally tiltiated boredom. "For lf the 
R.D.S. don't think much of it", said 
someone, "then it must be pretty feeble". 
These expectations remained delightfully 
unfulfilled. The R.D.S. evidently caught 
in the robound from a too feverish pur- 
sual of the futunst drama, gave us an 
evening of conventional, but highly en- 
joyable entertainment. 

The plays in themselves were none 
of them of extraordinary ment. "Jerry 
Bundler' as a type of the ordinary 
ghost-story, was mildly and pleasantly 

has no 


of the 

of which 






cause to be proud, 
was saved by the 
very promising actmg of Mr. Horsefield, who, 
with more thorough Coaching in the latter half of 
his difficult part, would have been a complete 
success. "The Ballad-monger" was remarkable 
for an excellent and unexpected piece of cha- 
racter acting by R. L. Anderson. As the sen- 
timental hero, Mr. Anderson is often too senti- 
mental and too heroic, but his Louis XI gave 
us a ghmpse of heights unaccustomed in Ruhleben. 
Good luck to the renascent R.D.S,, the thing 
of modesty, quiet worth and good taste — that 
is on the nights when Mr. Johnson does not 
sing behind the tabs. C. H. B. 

fA« £,/$£" 



"DANK Holiday in Ruhleben — sounds rather paradoxical 
*-* doesn't it ? But we destroyed the paradox and made it a 
fact. This Camp will never languish for boredom. We all 
have our occasional attacks of "Ruhlebenitis" but they pass 
and slowly we are realising that if a man is bored here he 
has only himself to' blame. Anyone who hunts for something 
to do in Ruhleben can find it, indeed the vast majority have 
already found it and it is our success in this direction that 
has made life possible. August Monday was a pleasant evidence 
of our ingenuity in finding weapons with which to fight the 
fiend Boredom. It was a go-as-you-please day. There was 
nothing organised, nothing arranged, it was simply "up to the 
Camp", as our American friends would say, and the Camp rose 
to the occasion. 

The day passed without a hitch and though we were all 
the poorer for it (for mind you, no one made any money!) we 
had a really good time. 

In response to an invitation for side-shows and booths, 
over sixty came forward and though we lacked our round- 
abouts and swinging boats, we were well provided with every 
form of cocoanut shy and at last we had a chance of getting 
rid of some of that "cocoa & milk." By the way, if there 
exists such a thing as a Staticians Society in the Camp, and 
surely Ruhleben is not without its Chiozza Money, it would 
be an interesting exercise for them to calculate the number 
of tins of "cocoa & milk" and "oöffee & milk" per man. We 
throw a bouquet at Mr. Dadd, ever ready to offer up his 
avoirdupois on the altar of the Camp, he provided rare fun, 
but if we begin to name those who helped to make the Ruhleben 
Hampstead a success, we should exoeed more than double the 
space at our disposal. Just a word, however, for the pierrots, 
for did they not provide us with our only two "Arriets" and to 
the men f rom the fruit stores who toiled all day in the hot 
sun like good-uns. And didn't that drink of "Berliner Weiss- 
bier" schmeck ! In the evening we had the Promenade Concert 
and the distribution of sports prizes by the Baroness von Taube. 
In opening the proceedings Mr. Powell asked the Baroness to 
give away the prizes which she did with that feminine grace 
which has endeared her to the hearts of the whole Camp. After 
the distribution, Mr. Powell thanked the Baron and Baroness 
for their presence and announced that there was yet one other 
prize to be distributed, the ladies' prize, open to all comers, 
and this had been won by the Baroness. He thereupon handed 
to her a dainty silven-cup, inscribed as follows 

(Continued on page 16) 


*- 1 ■> «^»^«c^. 



Souvenir of the Ruhleben Camp Sports 
May 24, 1915:' 

The Baroness who was evidently moved at this little token 
of the Camps appreciation, took the Cup amid three cheers 
— cheers that really did one's heart good and convinced one 
that after all this IS an English Camp. They came from the 
mens very hearts, and we believe that the Baroness will always 
have a pieasant memory of those three ringing British cheers. 

The Baron thanked the Camp most heartily for the reception 
it had given his wife. He said "I am deeply moved at your 
kindness and wish to thank you all most heartily in my wife's 
name for your goodness. I trust that peace may soon be restored 
and that you may all be able to return very shortly healthy and 
in good spirits to your homes and to the dear ones waiting 
for you. Again I thank you." 

The crowd responded by singing "For he's a jolly good 
fellow" and another three cheers for the Baron concluded the 



A crowded meeting, representative of all British interests 
in the Camp* gathered in the large Hall under the presidency 
of Mr. Pritchard, to protest against the action of a minority 
of the Camp in attempting to arrange for the sending from 
England to this Camp of souvenir badges, and also against the 
action of the British Ruhleben Society in writing to His Ma- 
jesty's Government a letter of enquiry with regard to a "Ruh- 
leben Medal." 

Mr. W. F. Mackenzie in opening, said if the letter asking 
the Foreign Office about a Ruhleben medal expressed the opinion 
of the majority then it was time this Camp was run as a 
lunatic asylum. At a time like this when our Government and 
the American Embassy were overburdened with work we should 
not make a nuisance of ourselves by putting forward childish 
and ridiculous requests. We were only a nondescript collection 
of people, technically British subjeets without a Single other 
connecting-band, and we had done nothing whätever to deserve 
recognition. The least our country could expect of us was 
that we should act with a certain dignity and not behave in any 
way which would reflect unfavourably on our nation or would 
be likely to make us a laughing-stock amongst friends and 

Mr. Barry spoke to a similar effect. 

Mr. T, H. Tivey moved the following resolution : — 

"THAT: This meeting calls upon the Camp to act 
consistently with the maintenance of good relations with the 
American Embassy at Berlin and with the authorities and people 
in England. It regards as undignified and inopportune the appli- 
cation to external authorities for badges, and trusts that all 
associations in the Camp will agree with this point of view. 

Mr. Tivey said the meeting was not so much a protest- 
meeting as a meeting to give the majority of the Camp an 
opportunity to give its opinion. Until now the small bodies 
have been articulate; the Camp generally has been content to 
laugh and joke at the "Medal Question". The statement made 
by Mr. Scholl at a meeting of the B.RA. on Sunday, to the 
effect that a letter had been written to H.M. Government, asking 
if they would issue a medal to civilian prisoners after the 
war — a letter which fortunately did not leave the Camp 
— seemed so serious that they organized that meeting. 

They wished to interfere with no one's personal liberty. 
But it must be remembered that as prisoners of war here, 
we were something more than private individuals. We had 
a public, or semi-public responsibility, to ourselves, to our 


government and to. our people. It was qinte possible for a 
comparatively small body of men, by some impolitic action, 
to prejudice our relations with England and to injure our 
reputation. Medals we had no right to and if it was only a 
commemorative badge these people wanted, then they should 
wait until their common experience was really a memory. 

The remittance of money to England at a time when money 
is Coming in large sums into the Camp for the relief of the 
desitution here, would create certain very unsavoury impressions. 
It would lay us open to accusations of levity, extravagance 
and conceit. It might indeed result in very definite action with 
regard to the help we are receiving. 

In view of these considerations, the desires of the mi- 
norities must be subordinated to the general opinion. 

Capt. Allcide briefly seconded the notion. 

Mr. Beaumont, speaking as a private individual and not 
as a Captain, heartily endorsed all that had been said by 
the other Speakers. 

The Chairman then put the motion which was carried with 
one dissentient. 


THE organisers of the Promenade Concerts do not seem to 
know that there is a large amount of hidden vocal talent in 
the Camp. The following list may prove helpful in making up 
future programes. 

"I Kept on Turning the Handle" sung by Captain Powell 
"My Beastly Eyeglass" - duett by Leigh Henry and Alex. Boss 
"R C. 49" sung by Mr. Butchart 

"On the Mississippi" „ Mr. O'Hara Murray 

"The Ragtime Curate" „ Mr. Ketdllim 

"Sherlock Holmes" „ Mr. Goldschmidt j'r. 

"The Ragtime Postman" „ Mr. Moresby-White 

"That Hypnotising Man" „ Mr. Pritchard 

"Swank" „ Mr.Crossland~Briggs 

"The Galloping Major" „ Mr. Abercasis ■ „';■ : 

"Sing Something Irish in Ragtime" „ Mr. Smyllie 

"Solomon Levi" „ The Lobster 

"With my LittleWigger- Wagger in my Hand" Mr. Goodchild 
"I Dreamt that I dwelt in Marble Halls" sung by the whole Camp 

Would make an effective Finale in the concerts. 
Oh/just one more! Perhaps, - I say PERHAPS - Mr. JardlOW 
- the famous Musical Comedy Star - may be persuaded to sing 

"NO MORE"! Omega. '' 



And the Rest of the Family. 

A Peep Behind the Scenes at The Frivolity, Ruhleben. 

T OOKING over some papers lying 

about in the Library waste-paper 
basket, the other day, I happened to 
come upon several scraps of old maga- 
zines bearing advertisements of our co- 
lonyAustralia, mviting young Enghshmen 
to try their luck in a new country and 
expatiating on the attractions of the land 
of the kangaroo and the damper. Now 
I am mterested in advertising and I feil 
to wondenng how one would best ad- 
vertise England and Enghshmen abroad. 
I should have had to confess myself 
stumped for good "copy 7 , had I not 
changed to pass the open door of the 
/j Grand Stand Hall, from whence came 
/ sounds of a rehearsal. Then lt came 
L; upon me as a flash. A profusely lllu- 
strated booklet describing our Camp 
theatre would absolutely meet the case. 
It is a long time since "Androcles & the Lion" took 

the Camp by storm, and we have become very blase and take 

the latest improvements very much for granted, but when one 

reflects that our theatre is entirely the outcome of amateur 

talent — I speak of the theatre as such, not of the plays — 

one begins to feel proud of Ruhleben. 

Does the Camp realise that our amateur stage carpenters 

have had to produce the scenery for the plays which so delight 

us, from absolutely raw material ? 

Carry the mind back to the library scene in "The Speckled 

Band" or the morning-room scene in 

"The Private Secretary". There was 

nothing wrong with them! They did 

not stnke one as lackmg any essentials. 

The furmture was all in perfectly good 

taste, in better taste indeed that one 

would find in many a middle - class 

house. Nothing indicated that the 

arm-chair — the dear old arm- 

chair which deserves a second Ehza 

Cook to sing lts praises — was /f 

the same old product of four sugar "baxter". , 

(Contir>ued on page 21] 





will open shortly 
in the 


(East End) 

The programme will be changed each 
week. There will be shows daily and the 
entrance fee will be 10 pfennigs. 

For further particulars see future announ- 
cements by the 



boxes, odd bits of crepe left over from the curtains, and a 
good half of some poor wretch's bed, which has done duty 
since "Strife" awakened discussion in our midst. 

That old arm-chair has been born again — that is, been 
recovered with another bob's worth of crepe — for every pro- 
duction we have had in the Camp with the exceptio n of "An- 
droeles & the Lion". Wihat tales the old chair could teil of 
Enid of Strife, torn between love of her father and sympathy 
for the strikers ; of the gay sailor in Captain Brassbound who 
did a- jig on it, and how it wickedly used to send him head 
over heels at every rehearsald of the wicked step-father pf 
"The Speckled Band" : of the lordly graces of "As You Like 
It" (for then the old thing had its back and arms removed 
and "appeared" as part of a mossy bank) ; of the dainty 
matrimonial tif f s of the French Players : of the gorgeousness 
of the Count of Luxembourg — and all, remember, for an 
outlay of perhaps two marks and the wrath of the man whose 
bed is minus its shavings. 

Of course now-a-days, the poor old thing is rather put 
in the shade by its rieh wooden cousins, built especially for 
His Majesty, Louis XI of France to sit in, and no wonder, 
for did not three marks worth of timber go to their manu- 
facture ? Then there is the old chair' s brother, the sofa. Really, 
versatility runs in the family, for the old chap has also sustained 
a röle in nearly every play so far. He cost us three marks, 
and no one can deny 'his havmg given us our money's worth 
a dozen times over. Throw a red bit of crepe over him and 
he graces a dining-room, throw a green bit of crepe over him 
and ne adorns a drawing-room, throw a brown bit of crepe 
over him and he just strikes the tone for a study. Once he had 
his back and arms taken off and did duty as a four-poster bed. 
For "The Silver Box" the old boy was equipped with four 
new legs, made from bits of "Strife" scenery still knocking 
around the dramatic shed, and now he feels ready to do justice 
to a baronial hall. 

Then those English fire-places, they are only canvass, 
wood and paint, and seven marks would cover the cost; but 
they talk, especially to those who haven't seen a homely English 
mantel-pieoe for years. And the high club fender with the 
upholstered top — it invites one to sit down on it there and 
then and yarn of the Old Country but that stage-carpent(er 
will kick up a row if you do; the Ruhleben fender wasn't 
made to sit on, it was made to "plafy a part". Of course 
one can understand the carpenter taking care of it, for the 
fender let me teil you is one of our really costly articles of 
furniture. You see, the bars are broom handles and these cost 

(Contin ued on page 23.) 









:: Music by Andre Wormser :: | 

— I 

Mimodrama in three acts by Michel Carre 

September 3 rd 
and following nights 




C. Weber 


H. G. Hopkirk 

This work has been orchestra- 
ted spezially for this occasion 
by: E. L. Bainton, B. J. Dale, 
E. C. MacMillan & C. Weber. 




20 pfennigs each at the Canteen, still the Entertainments Com- 
mittee needn't grumble at having to pay three marks for him, 
for though ta you he may seem an insignificant pieee of goods, 
he really does a lot to give a "finish" to the scene. His 
upholstered top is covered with crepe too. 

What should we do without that crepe ? You remember 
its first appearence don't you — the red appeared as the 
hangings to the Colliseum scene in "Androcles & the Lion" 
while the green was "a rhythmical representation of a forest" 
for "As You Like It". How the carpenter grinned as he 
gave me this last bit of information ! Since those days we have 
had all our upholstered furniture covered with red or green 
crepe, and it is wonderful how they alternate it so that we 
do not get tired of it. 

Besides covering the furniture, those curtains have done 
duty as the wall-paper for the lady's bed-room in "The Speckled 
Band", dressed the poet in "The Ballad Monger", trimmed Miss 
Molly M'Ginty's dress, acted as the garden outside the window 
— this part was played by the green ones obvrously — and 
last but not least, they formed the wall which rendered the 
"hangmg" of our Ruhleben Royal Academy possible. They 
are not dead yet of course ; I haven't been to see "The Silver 
Box" yet, but I have no doubt those old curtains crop up 
somewhere in it, and not in a minor röle either! Naturally, 
we don't enclose the stage with them any longer — we have 
outgrown the old curtains so far as that is concerned, and 
attained to "f lats". You don't know what "flats" are ? — 
neither did I until I talked to Mr. Carpenter about it. They 
are the screens made of canvas stretched on a light wooden 
frame. They cost M. 140. — , but they can be repamted for 
six marks and think what the Irishmen did with them — 
turned them into "real live scenery" thus giving us a sea-scape 
and an Emerald Isle landscape. The furnishing of the study 
scene in "The Speckled Band", one of the most elaborate 
that has been put on at the Frivolity, Ruhleben, including 
the pamting of the "flats", cost under forty marks. Really 
it makes one cease to dread the idea of marriage ! 

The prettiest bit of furniture we have is the little Moorish 
table. It was made for Capt. Brassbound out of the old 
foot-light board which had to be taken up when we adopted 
electric foot-lights, and now one naturally looks for it whenever 
a drawing-room scene is on the boards. 

But if you want to borrow money from any of our stage 
carpenters first turn the conversation to grandfather-clocks. That 
clock is the real apple of their eyes. Two sugar-boxes went to 
make the body, the face is canvass, the hands are pieces of 


a cigar-box and the bit of Ornament on the top of the face 
was taken off a real mirror. Whose mirror? Well, it wftsn't 
your mirror, so that you need not worry about it ! The Enter- 
tainments Committee are proud of it too, for the bill was only 
M. 2.50. 

Thinking I might find something interesting I fished about 
in the property-box and my first haul was the roast goose which 
made me feel so hungry at "The Ballad-Monger '. Near to, 
he hardly had as great an effect for one could see he was 
nothing but sawdust and canvass. The next thing was a rifle. 
"Capt. Brassbound" is a long way back, but surely you re- 
member those rif les ? One broomstick, a bit of webbing, part 
of a Huntley & Palmer's biscuit-tin for the lock, some paint 
and hey presto ! — there you are, a Lee Metford guaranteed 
not to bounce if dropped on the stage, and all for 50 pfenmgs. 
That reminds me ; the carpenters confess to one f ailure — 
the poker that behaved so badly m "The Speckled Band 
but then, as they pointed out to me, if Dr. Rylott Jiadn t 
dropped it the beastly thing would never have bounced ! At 
my next dip I got a pair of handcuffs and a revolver: the 
former made of bits of wood and rope and the latter carved 
out of plaster of Paris, with a pocket-knife. Then came some 
grecn bits of cardboai"d at which the carpenters laughed. They 
were the leaves of the forest, they explamed. It took twenty- 
five men to cut them out and paint them and they had a fearful 
row w 7 ith the box-office people who complained that the car- 
penters had pinched all the cardboard and left them none 
to make tickets with, "And the ticket money was more im- 
portant than the rotten forest, etc. etc.'' 

Who are the men who do all this ? Well, Higginson was 
the first man on the Job ; he's dropped it now, but all honouf 
to him for having done the pioneer work. James was his second- 
m-command and has stuck at it nobly all through. James wants 
to fit up the transformation scene for the Christmas pantomime! 
Them there is Kindersley — you all know him ; he used to 
seil us margarine before he tumed stage-hand — a good all- 
round sport is K. Fmally, there is Baxter, the Marconi man, 
always smilmg and always working, a fine combination ! You 
ought to throw a bouquet at the whole quartette, Mr. Editor! 
There are other stage hands, but their turn will come when I 
talk of the stagje fittings — Sandy White, for instance, who 
does odd Jobs anywhere and after helping with the scenery, 
goes on to the stage and acts his part well ! The Camp ought 
to be proud of all and I believe it is. 





(Prepared by the retiring Committee, 24 th July, 1915.) 

The object of the present Report is to place all those 
interested in the educational effort of the Camp School in a position 
to estimate the value of what has been done since the School's 
inception: it is a record of persistent effort to meet continual, un- 
expected and uncontrollable difficulties — a thought that must be 
borne in mind, not only by those who wish to estimate what has 
been done, but still more by those who wish to help in the further- 
ance of the School's Work. 

It was in the early days of January last, that Mr. Reynolds, 
at the Suggestion of the Arts & Science Union called a meeting of 
teachers with the object of setting up a school in the Camp : a 
Committee was then elected to undertake this work, consisting of 
Messrs Tillyard, Agharkar, Hart, Platow, Henriksen, Reynolds & Ford 
— the last named to be Chairman, Mr. Reynolds to be Secretary. 

Two possible courses were open to the Committee: 1) to find 
out what the Camp could teach, and offer a Sy Ilabus based on that 
enquiry: 2) to find out what the Camp wanted to learn, and to 
satisfy that demand as well as possible. The second course was 
adopted, and a suggestive Syllabus was drawn up and circulated, 
together with Application Forms. Over 1100 of these were returned, 
applying in most cases for three Classes (the maximum offered to 
each) and ranging over a very wide field of subjects, nearly all of 
which, however, the Committee had reasonable hope of being able 
to satisfy. 

Though the demand for instruction was thus shown to be 
very strong, the committee now met their first disrpp .intment: for 
the A S. U., who had undertaken the responsibility of finding acco- 
modation for class teaching, were quite unable to do anytLing in 
this ma.tter. All sorts of suggestions were made in the proper quarters 
but nothing came of them, and the School's effort thus early received 
a check from which it has never fully recovered: and even now the 
question of accomodation cannot be considered altogether satisfactory. 

In order, however, to prevent waste of time and the disappoint- 
ment of intending pupils, and in order to show how strong and real was 
the demand for education, the Committee now proposed to Start a System 
of classes in Boxes and Loft Corners: for which work a Subcommittee 
was appointed — Messrs. Ford, Henriksen, and Hart (the last named 
being now appointed Secretary in place of Mr. Reynolds resigned). 
ThisSub-committee then circulated slips.asking for the use of Boxes and 
Loft Corners, and therein formed some thirty classes, consisting for the 
most part of the occupants of those places and their acquaintances. Feel- 
ing, however, that this system was rapidly exhaus ; ing the teaching capa- 
city of the Camp, and was leading to an unsatisfactory grouping of pupils 



— difficult to regroup on a sound basis when proper accommodation 
could be found — the 5ub-committee refrained from pressing tKis ce 
opment. forming classes only where exceptional keenr.e?f -was shown. 

With the advent of warm weather, and the possibility of class 

teaching being undertaken on the Third G^and Stand, and later in the 

Loft of Barrack 6. tne activry of the School developed rapidly, until 

be present date, some /5 classes are at work. giving tuition to 

some 700 pupils. 

Such is in brief the cutward history of the School's inception 

and development, and there remains now but to State as succintly 
as possible. the srmewhat disjointed facts of its inner h:story including 
the questdon of Finance. 

In this latter connection, two considerat ons governed the 
Committee s action: by revenue, the Committee originally 

proposed to invite a voluntary subscription from pupils, or from o: 
interested in promoting the Sensors welfare, but the ui;certainty of the 
continuance of classes did not justify the Committee in asking for these 
subscriptions Moreover. when the Camp Education Committee came 
into existence, the School came w thin the Captains' scheme oi trat 
Committee *s activities, and we now look to the Education Committee 
to defray the Scho;l's expenses. as it is their expressed wish that 
instruetion in the Camp School should as far as possible be free- So far 
the only f nancial help the School has had is a renewable credit of 
Marks for petty expenses placed at our disposal by the Education 
Committee. We have, however. been careful to restrict expenditure to 
limits that can easily be met from our own resources if necessary. 

The difficult task of straightening out the School's aecounts was 
entrusted to Mr. Bodin, who undertook the work of Temporary Trri- 
surer, for among our other difficulties our Treasurer, Mr- Lazarus, 
for private reasons, feit unable to continue the work : and with the 
aid of Mr. Platford, a Statement -was drawn up in three parts : 
Cash Account, showing a balance in hand of M 7.10: 2 r ^, an 
Income & Expenditure Account, showing total expenditure of M 294.95 
and Total "ncome of M 18, giving a deficit of M 276.95: 3 rd , a 
Balance Sheet showing to whom the School was in debt- These 
aecounts will be presented to the Education Committee for settlement. 

This Report would not be complete without re'erence to the 
fact that some weeks ago the Camp School united with the classes 
formed by Mr. ^X impfheimer, the latter be Coming a member ot the 
Schocl Committee, and his classes registering on the School's Books. 
Though these classes had crnsiderably fallen off at the time of amal- 
gamation, they at one time numbered about 33 with nearly 200 pupils. 

:ion too, we feel, should be made. of the Series of Meetings 
-een the Comrr. d the Teachers, beginning with the Social 

Gathering and ending at this General Meeting, for they have shown that 
whatever difficulties we have ha 3 to face, and however :mperfe: 
consequence the Organisation of the School's work may be, this at least, 
the present Committee has effected — we have called into being a com- 
petent and energetic bod\- of Teachers from whom can now be elected 
a new representative Commitee, that will be wholly capable, in lig- 
the pione-r Committee s exp%rier-jce, to carry on the administration 
of the Camp School with nope of solid succe~~ 




y^HERE is a populär misconception abroad that the people 
^-' of Mars are very grotesque beings. But this is really not 
so. Physically they are much the same as we are, being easily 
mistaken for chimpanzees, as we shall see. Intellectually, how- 
ever, there is a great gulf fixed between us. With their vastly 
superior knowledge they justly regard our minds as being of 
the same species as those of decently brought up insects. They 
are able to render their bodies quite invisible, in which state 
they can float through space, lf they will, without expenencing 
any discomfiture. Thus it was that two Martians of repute, 
Prof. Maks and Dr. Morritso, came upon this earth. As luck 
would have it, they alighted within the Ruhleben Gefangenenlager. 
After having switched on, so to speak, a certain mental 
current, which enables Martians to understand and speak any 
barbarous lingo, such as English, they separately mingled with 
the crowd. 

Towards the evening they met to compare their experiences. 
Said Prof. Maks : "Well, friend, what do you think of 
this place ?" 

"Not much" replied Dr. Moritso, "rather stränge — almost 

"I thought at first we must have dropped into some 
monastery. I've not met a Single woman here." 

"True, but the language is far from monastic." 

Both were silent for a moment, as if trying, yet fearing, 
to read each others thoughts. 

"Dr. Moritso" at length, said the Professor, "I believe 
you have come to the same 
conclusion as I." n yr\ . . // « /// 

And that is r J rrtl ^ 

"We are in a mad- 

"Exactly my opimon — 
1 have spoken with many 
men to-day, and everyone 
shows unmistakable signs 
of lunacy." 

"Just my expeiience too." 

Did you not notice too 
that there is no escape 
from here ? Armed men 
guard the boundaries. 

j4 Sdd (Fase 


'That but confirms my suspicions." 

Just then a surging mob carried them off their feet and 
deafened them with their roaring : 

"One man, one medal" "Gold badges for golden 
chains ! " "Down with him!" "We are all equal !" 
"Liar!" "Just a souvenir!' "Sit down!" "Bronze for all!' 
"Bronze for all!" "Home Counties ! — no snobbery ! — common 
face design!" "Tyranny!" 

In the midst of all this hubbub a hoarse voice whispered 
in the Martians' ears. "If you're discovered, you're lost!" 

"Good Lord!" said the Professor to the Doctor, "did you 
hear that warning?" 

"I did, replied the Doctor, and I think we'd better be 

They rushed headlong away f rom the throng — but lo ! 

— straight into the arms of another mob. 

"Vote for Cohen — beer ! There was a cow ! Compen- 
sation ! Climbed up a tree ! Down with Gastank ! Hurrah ! 
Here are Castang's apes. Come on boys !" 

Our two guests were unceremoniously collared by a gang 
of white and coloured youths, carried away shoulder high, 
amidst great jubilation and immersed in a tub of violet paint. 
After their baptism, they were stuck on the roof of the boiler 
house for general amusement. Soon, a great shout announced 
the arrival of the Castangians, who in noise and numbers far 
excel any other party. By these the two visitors were rescued ; 
and Castang, the great Castang himself, feil about their necks 
weeping for joy. 

"Come with me dearies" he sobbed "come with me. I will 
take you to the Captain and all will be well." 

"But dear Mr. Castang," said the Professor "will you not 
promise me — " 

"I promise you nothing, darlings, and you'll get it all 
right." Meanwhile, Captain Whiteband arnved. 

"What's this ? — I've got no time to waste — have you 
f llled up these little white slips ? — Have you two Government 

Driven to desperation by the utter confusion around them, 
the two bold men from Mars made a dash for the fenoes. 
Getting hitched up by their beam-ends, however, on the barbed 
wire, they were easily captured and transferred to Barrack 11 

— Seventy-two hours. 

Perhaps, after all, Professor Maks and Dr. Moritso have 
reason to think that we are all stark, staring mad. At all 
events. Solomon was right when he said — "Where there are 
no women, all men are a screw loose." (Eccles. X: 112). 



"7b^a-*-Ä. «c*»-*' 



(The attitude of the Combined Societies tn the Souvenir Question: Australiai.s, 
London & Home Counties, Canadians, South Africans, Irish, Welsh, Yorfashire. 

Wntten by Alex. H. Bodin.) 

The Combined Societies in the Camp are confronted to 
their regret with the most clear fact that 1) the letter 
to the British Government and 2) the Anti-medal meeting pro- 
testing against that letter have yet again made their position 
and action obscure and wish for no more than such publicity 
as will remove these grounds of misunderstanding. 

The motion submitted at the Anti-medal Meeting was drawn 
up in view of the definite action of a recognised body in the 
Camp, and in ^asserting that application to external authonties 
for badges, is both inopportune and undignified, without question 
expresses a real public Indignation, and with the expression 
of this indignation the Combined Societies and every sensible 
man in the Camp is in spirited agreement. 

But these Societies feel that motion as a whole shows 
no recognition of sympathy for the entirely praiseworthy desire 
of the majority of men in the Camp for a souvenir of their 
stay here, and no true solicitude to distinguish between the action 
of that particular body and this quite different desire, and that 
accordingly the launching of a motion indefinite in this respect 
into the already troubled sea of opinion was not the best 
Service to the Camp which the circumstances allowed. 

The resolution put on the Societies through the medium 
of an appeal to the sense of propriety of the Camp the double 
ones of dissociating^ themselves franx a step which- they have 
never thought or would think of disputing ; and this is a position 
which they disavow. 

They further feel that only the ignoring of this distinction 
between the actiort of the particular body in the Camp on the 
one hand and the souvenir interest, and the position of the 
combined Societies on the öther could make possible a public 
call on the CAMP to "act cons.istently with the maintenance of 
good relations with the American Embassy at Berlin and with 
the authorities and people in England", and that such ä notion 
is undeserved, and that a public expression of this fact is due 
to the CAMP and to that great majority of its members, whether 
interested in the souvenir question or not, whose appreciation 
of the trial Britain in common with the rest of the world 
is passing through, and whose sensitiveness to their own position 
here and to their relations with the authorities and people at 
home is above reproach. 

What have the Societies done ? They have sought to meet 
the desire — the real and unimpeachable desire — of the 


great majority of men in the Camp for a simple yet pleasing 
souvenir of their stay here ; and have merely recognised in their 
action — as everyone who gives lt a moment's thought does 
recognise — that the larger the body of fellow-pnsoners who 
symbolise their common experience by the same Souvenirs, the 
more valuable to each man is his souvenir. 

A souvenir is only a symbol of something — like the 
prize you win at school or in sport, like the photograph of a 
group of friends or a picnic-party. In this case the souvenir 
will symbolise the people who have met here, and the cir- 
cumstances under which they have met, and the associations and 
interests which have grown up among us, and all the joys and 
worries, and the whole ränge of expenences which the word 
Ruhleben will bring to the memory of everyone here when he 
sees that word in that future time when all the circumstances 
and associations and most of the friends whom you are now 
nodding to every day live only in the memory. Who from false 
shame or ndicule would betray his homely sentiments or the 
homely way of memorialising his lot, because there has been 
confused talk about the thing? 

A souvenir is not a medal. A medal is a decoration 
awarded for example, for bravery, and bravery is a man's 
action in circumstances your imagination can easily supply. 
Between a Souvenir and a Medal is a world of difference. 
Whether you take a souvenir or not is a matter for you to 
decide. If a man feels no desire for one let him not take 
one ; and if the f act that the great majority of his f ellow- 
prisoners wish for and take Souvenirs gives it no value in his 
eyes, why ! Still let him not take one. But if you take one, 
remember, your friends will value it because it is a small 
memorial of a trying part of your life which lives for them 
only in your descriptions. You will value it yourselves. You 
won't always be thinking of it, but you will think of it some- 
times and there will be pleasant memories even if the things 
you remember are not so pleasant. You will have few other 
Souvenirs which mean so much to you. Is there any reason 
why the satisfaction of this pleasing, homely and unimpeachable 
interest of ours should disturb the harmony of our relations 
between us and the American Embassy or the authonties and 
people at home ? Not the shadow of one ! With this, the appli- 
cation to the British Government for permanent badges has 
nothing in common, and this latter step, we believe, not only 
is inopportune, but is and ever will be undignified. 

It is loosely said about the Camp that we are a nuisanee 
to the authorities at home. We are not a nuisance to the 
authorities at home. We are to both the authorities and people 


at home a cause of colicitude. Though our circumstances prevent 
our sharing in those forms of help which we would more gladly 
give, this is our misfortune. But we have our own little trials 
and we bear them the Lest way we can, and the simple desire tfo 
commemorate in harmony our common lot in a simple common 
Souvenir will only be to the people at home and to the authori- 
ties, should they ever afterwards come to hear of it, a matter 
of the most friendly approval. 


IN reply to Mr, Bodin, we should like to point out: 
1. It is evidently not the wish of the majoHty of the Camp 
to send for a souvenir badge of Ruhleben white interned here 
as is clearly shown by the fact that seventy per Cent of the 
men in the barracks canvassed signed the resolution passed with 
One dissentient at the anti-medal meeting. 

2. Those who orgamsed and spoke at the anti-medal meeting 
have nothing to say against the adoption of a souvenir badge; all 
they ask is that those badges be not broaght into this Camp — 
what a man does outside is a matter of personal taste. 

3. Askmg the American Embassy to look after the forwardmg 
of money to England for the purchase of badges is WOrrying 
the Embassy, As there is a prohibition on the export of metal 
from England, it will entail worrylng Hls Majesty's Govern- 
ment for leave to send out the badges — indeed we happen to know 
that the American Embassy at Berlin has refened this matter 
to the British Foreign Office. 

4. The people who want badges in gold and silvcr have 
decided to wait IMtll they get home , then why cannot the 
others do so also? 

5. The sending back to England of a large sum of money 
for badges, when England is sending large sums every week to 
reheve destitution in this Camp will mevitably produce a false 
Impression and indeed may have a very unfavourable effect on 
the sending out of relief, both monetary and In the form 
of parcels. 

6. A badge is quite linnecessary in this Camp, then why 
do not those who want one wait until they are at home again 
and the purchase of their badges cannot possibly härm anyone! 

WHY PERSIST? editor. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. Kindly note that we do NOT require 
any poems, jokes, pictures, articles or anything which has the 
Supermen as subject. The Camp is fed up with them and so 
are we ! 





A: V 

C* tu*. 


AFTER having seen the Irish players in their productions 
"The Night of the Wake" and "Mrs. M'Ginty's Lodger" 
one noted on the posters their intention to submit three plays by 
Yeats and Lady Gregory with somewhat mixed anticipations. 
On the night of the Performance the receipt of a very badly 
printed programme in return for one's penny, together with rather 
groggy introductory music of the variety type, did not tend 
to brighten expectation. A few minutes of "Cathleen ni Hou- 
lihan" served however to convince us that here we had before 
us a really serious Irish effort, and on the fall of the curtain 
all minor considerations sank in a feeling of gratitude and 
respect to the Irishmen among us for having so boldly attacked 
a subject so worthy and difficult of interpretation. 

In no case was the acting above the average. Wilson as 
Peter gave us the most fimshed product; Green (as Bridget, 
his wife) has no aptitude for a motherly part; Michael, the son, 
was wood, unrelieved by the faintest facial play in a character 
where tendemess and quick inspiration are essential if the 
human note is to be Struck; Caleb, as Cathleen ni Houlihan, the 
dark centrepiece of the play, was certainly excellent within 
the limits of his sex and age. And yet, such was the quiet sin- 
cerity with which the players said their lines that the spectator, 
following the thought in word rather than its expression in deed, 
was able to pieroe through indistinct action and blurred move- 
ment right to the heart of the play, and rose, when the curtain 
feil on the scene, with a warmer sympathy and a closer under- 


standing for the problems and enthusiasm of our unhappy Cin- 
deralla sister-isle. 

They were less fortunate in the two plays by Lady Gre- 
gory that followed. To the foreigner, anxious to get at grips 
with the Irishman as he is, Lady Gregorys pictures of Irish 
life seem stagey, shallow and superficial — even when judged 
as humour alone. Taken as so much gag-material by clever players 
they may serve to amuse, but to reel them off after such a little 
gern as "Cathleen" seems almost sacnlege and in this case came 
near to spoiling the evening. Why wasn't "Cathleen" put last? 

"The Rising of the Moon" was most notable for its scenery, 
the effect of which was partly spoiled by policemen pushing 
their way through green curtains at the front of the stage to get 
on to the quay ; the bull-dog lantern was another mistake. The 
whole thing had the air of a badly done music-hall turn. Neither 
actors nor audience feit the piece. 

Smyllie and Wilson, the players of the principal roles 
in this play retrieved their endangered laureis in the squall 
entitled "Spreading the News". Here again the scenic effects 
were striking — to put it mildly. Wilsons quiet humour was the 
real thing, and Smyllie's impersonation of the old apple-woman 
so belief-inspiring that one realised it as a piece of clever 
acting only when he took off his wig. The scene developed 
towards the end into a free fight ; and free f ights — unf or- 
tunately for the Irishman — never come off on the stage, the 
spectator getting bored and not knowing where to pin his 
attention. Rising exhausted from holding one's sides at Caleb's 
amusing squalling, one was inclined to dismiss the evening with 
a "Well, they've given us a good laugh, anyway" — but from 
under the din arose the murmur "They have taken from me 
my four beautiful green fields" — and one stopped to reconsider 
and appraise our Irish through Yeat's eyes — that is, at 
their best and truest. H. M. 


GAMES OF CHANCE" by A. Boss of Surrey. Blue Cloth, 
3/- Carlton Publ. Co. 

"SEVENTY-TWO HOURS" — Elinor Glinn — Constable & Co. 

"WHAT I SHALL DO FOR CHINA* — P. Oggson — Howe, 
Long & Wenn. 


— R. Castang — "Suffragette Publ. Co.* 



THE first part of the story took place several months ago, 
and this is how. As I was sitting in the barbers' shop, waiting 
for a shave, a dark-haired man, weird and wild in his attire, 
entered the enclosure and sat down next to me. Having pulled 
out his pipe, he feit about for a match, until I came to his 
assistance. "Thank you sir" ; ( he lit up and held the match 
in his fingers until it went out. "The flame is dead" he said 
with a slow, sad smile and then turning to me — "perhaps 
sir, you would like to hear my story ?" 

I said I should be delighted. 

"It was years ago in England", he began "that I feil in 
love ; not as most men fall in love, — < my love was boundless 
and deep as the infinite, the girl whom I adored was ah ! — so 
beautiful and sang oh ! — so sweetly. She had aspirations 
towards the stage." 

He paused a moment and ran his fingers through his 
hair. The poor fellow was evidently deranged. He went on : 

"Ever since she had told me that she loved me, I had been 
as one nectar-intoxicated ; tili suddenly the brimming cup was 
dashed f rom my lips ... on the telephone — ' a f alse connection 
— I heard her call him "Gussy dear" — and my name is Rupert. 
We never met, Gussy and I, all I could learn of him was that 
he had fair hair and an eyeglass. I had words of course 
with the girl ; and the upshot of it all was that I took to the 
road, until my cash — I had saved up for the honeymoon — 
was all gone. This happened, by chance, in Germany, where to 
cut a long story short, I have been struggling along on odd 
Jobs — I play the violin a bit — ever since. All these years 
she has been dead to me." 


At this point he knocked the ashes out of his pipe and 
appeared quite painfully surprised to find that his pouch was 
empty. I passed him mine. 

"It was to my intense relief, financial and otherwise, that 
I was brought here last November, with the rest. At first, 
I lived in one of the lofts, it was not tili shortly before Christ- 
mas that I got a bed downstairs. Now sir" — his voice 
was strained — "try and imagine, if you can, my feelings, when 
I entered the box that was to be my future home, and .saw, 
on- the bed above mine, in a silver frame, a photograph of 
HER, changed indeed with the years but still unmistakably 
the girl I had loved and lost !" 

He broke off in emotion. "Extraordinary" I said, "go on". 

"In what state of mind I waited for the owner of the 
Portrait to appear, you may imagine ... I will not deceive 
you, he WAS , a man with fair hair and an eyeglass ! 

"Sir, I assure you, from that day to this I have known 
no peace. I have my rival — my enemy — within my grasp, 
and yet cannot strike — I might get cells if I did. I have 
hidden my hate — He doestl' t ktlOW, he cannot guess 
the power of a strong man's hatred. 

"Every morning I pray that he may fall out of bed and 
break his neck, I watch him at meals, in the hope that he may 
choke ; I rejoice when I see him fetching hot water, that he 
burn his fingers. I have got him into the black books of — " 

"But you surely don't inean to — " I interrupted. 

"I do", he hissed, "you mark my words, sir, I have stood 
it long enough ; one of these days I shall do something — his 
Ups were touching my ear — dreadful !' 

"Next for shaving!", called the barber, and I went. 

On one of these beautiful evenings in early summer, I was 
admiring the view from the top of the middle grand- stand. 
Two men were sitting in front of me, I could not help over- 
hearing their conversation. The subject was not an uncommon 
one among Ruhlebenites — they were discussing their box- 
mates. The younger of the two, who, I noticed, had fair hair, 
was saying : 

"Yes, the rest of the chaps are all right. We got old Spagoni 
out the day before yesterday ; the beggar was absolutely dotty, 
yet he seemed to be immensely attracted to me ; ever since he 
came into our box, he hardly took his eyes off me — used 
to follow me about like a dog. I humoured him though, he 
was quite harmless, until he broke out last week. You know 
that picture post-card of Dolly Danver of the "Frolics" in 


the silver frame — I won it in a raffle before Christmas ? 
Well, at the spring cleaning I put my foot through the thing, 
and old Spag raved and cursed at me for nearly an hour as 
though the photo had belonged to him — absolutely off his 
rocker ! We got him avvay after that. Lucky beggar being 
released all the same!" 

G. H. M. 


AS Isat 

Before the open Barrack door 

And thought, how dead my days, 

How dirty, void and worthless quite 

Had grown my life in this unlovely 

Where cobwebbed thought 

And effort pitiably frustrate 

B?at meshed wings 

Against a barrier unseen, 


Like baffled flies against a window- 

pane — 

As I sat 

And dozed, too listless grown 
To stem the creeping tide of apathy 
That cloyed my brain and paralysed 

my limbs, 
Sudden there came 
A noise of rushing wings, 
And starting up I saw a stork: 

A stork, 

So quaint and rare, 

Arrayed in all its inlaid panoply 

Of black and white and grey: 

With outstretched neck, 

And long legs on the trail, 

And two great steady bravely-beat- 

ing wings: 

— Like some stray piece of a 
Japanese screen, 

Or like an old-world fairytale 

Scared from out its dusty lair 

And flying 

Adown our present Everyday — 

Across my startled eyes it flew, 

So brave and strong and free — 

Oh free — 

Home to its windy nest. 

Life stirred deep within my breast, 
And turned, 
And slept ägain. 

I jumped right up out of my chair, 

And knew 

Right there and then, 

That on some distant, distant day 

Far out ahead 

I'd see that stork again fly past 

My clearer, reminiscent eyes, 

And looking back 

l'd gauge this time, it's good and bad, 

And smile 

And wonder happily 

At the undefeated life 

That lies 

Deep hidden, warm, secure, right down 

In you and me, 

When evil threatens, and dire storms 

Batter the unaspiring flesh 

To idiot indifference . . . 

CUSTOMER (at Greengrocery Store, who has bought 
article to ithe value of 15 pfennigs): Change une five marks ? 
.SALESMAN: My dear sir, this is a canteen, not a counting 



ßy "The Spectral Dustman." 

No. /. Mr. C. Nacnud Senoj. 

7^ HE shades of night had fallen. Only the steady ominous 
^ tramping of sentries round the walls, and the oecasional 
ghostly outline of a hurrying, pyjama-clad being bound for 
Cooper Square, disturbed the solemn hush which brooded over 
the centre of Ruhleben. Borne quaveringly on the fitful breeze 
from the magic world beyond the city walls, came the muffled 
sounds of cloeks striking the midnight hour. 

Our representative, the spectral dustman, feeling particularly 
wakeful after a restful day, flitted silently along the darkened 
thoroughfares until he reached that delightfully secluded retreat 
in the purlieu of Trafalgar Square, which had the honour of 
accommodating the soon-to-be world-famous subject of our stolen 
interview: Mr. Nacnud Senoj. 

Mr. Senoj who had, some hours previously, granted the 
telephonic request of the Editor of "I.R.C." for a few mi- 
nutes conversation, personally received our representative on the 
threshdold of his charming retreat. Attired in one of Messrs. 
Blackett & Davidsons most gorgeous dressing-gowns, Mr. Senoj 
had the air of a most distinguished-looking, high-bred, in- 
tellectual, yet somewhat attenuated associate of the Futuristic 


Qf¥€ay aiouant ine <z nac&et of 
•u&vi, lea&u öJitenatcc anai ecccettent 
to&ee So Sne ötaae aoot ta&£ -ncanS 
ana 0/ /eet Qs muöS i,ea€tu ivlite So 
Se€€ uou now aooa Q/ tnin& iS tö. <£/o 
wnoteöome an et fi wie, QsS lemi-naiy me 
of wi-u. taöS Soui> in (onauzvicc ivnele 
Q/ aSwauö a,Se -uowl o/o/eee ae Jz£t&<ve- 
Q/dn S iS t'uöS ö/i-Cenaicd veina aute So 
aeS iS aS Sne Q/lunSeuen Qsioleö aele? 



r tn 



ENGUSH TOFFEE: 2 packets 15 Pfg. at Ruhleben Stores. 



much oommended. Six 

fraternity. He had the bearing, so 
noticeable a characteristic of all 
futuristic idealists, of being a Coming 
Personality, an actual Genius of the 

Striking a Pecksniffian attitude, 
which despite bis far from Peck- 
sniffian proportions, was so extremely 
realistic tbat it displayed excellently 
tbe latent histrionic capabilities of 
tbis Dramatist of tbe Future, Mr. 
Senoj, pointin g to a monumental 
k atherbound collection of 20 volumes, 
wbich adorned a corner cabinet 
surrounded by cbarming artistic 
works by sudb artists as Huntley / 
& Palmer & McVitie & Price, 
exclaimed, in bis deep, dramatically- 
pitched tones : — 

"Some - of my work, Mr. 
Dustman" "Two Volumes on "Tbe 
Subtler Errors in Sbakespeare' 
more on 'Tbe Correct Sbakespearian Intonations and Attitudes 
of 'As You Like It', recently studied in tbe city, you know. 
Another on 'My Criticism on a few gross Inexactitudes in tbe 
Definitions of tbe Evocative Drama' bas disconcerted some 
VERY famous persons. Tbese two are on a subject for wbich 
I am already famous in some circles, tbat is 'Tbe Affected 
and Ultra-dramatic Reading Voice — How to Succumb to Its 
Charm'. Tbose tbree on 'Lonely Superiority in a Deck Cbair 
— How to Practise and Assume it' bave bad an immense 
success, almost equalling tbat of my otber celebrated production 
in six volumes, entitled 'How to Become a Great Personality 
in tbe Artistic World of Rubleben'." 

"And wbat are tbese, Mr. Senoj ?" asked our representative, 
indicating some ponderous tomes almost concealing a cboice 
array of daintily coloured prints by Liebig, Cadbury and Cbivers. 

"Ob tbose," said Mr. Senoj, carelessly inflecting bis voice 
to tbat modesty wbicb suits bim so well, "Oh those are merely 
a few favourable criticisms on my little attempts in the field 
of literature, made by the Colonials, the Hyper-futurists and 
various organisations and sub-organisations of Dramatists in the 
city, dpn't you know." 

Still keeping his Pecksniffian pose, Mr. Senoj dilated 
on tbe value of his work on the comparatively unenlightened 
Community with wbich he had the misfortune to be associated. 


"You know ", said Mr. Senoj, "I have always made it a 
point in my career to ©ducate all non-super mortals up to the 
dizzy elevation of my ideals. Whether they desire the inculcation 
of the principles of modest seclusion in private life, or the 
art of dramatic delivery on the stage, or the artistic development 
in the use of 'shorts' as a mode of attire, or even the ambitious 
assumptions to become celebrities in this city — I will not say 
in the magic world beyond the walls — well, all they have to 
do, is to copy my ideals (and Mr. Senoj, put his right hand 
dramatically over his heart and almost looked Somebody), to 
imitate my actions, follow my example and then — then — 
(with intense fervour in delivery) then, shall they be as I Am 
— famous — celebrated — a lion of the town even unto An- 
drocles, invited everywhere, even as I Am, even - — 

"Ruhe !" "Schlafen gehen !" 

The spectral Dustman flitted silently along the deserted 
ways, flitted past the advertising hoardings, ghostly and wonder- 
ful, flitted by the side of Spring Gardens and finally flitting 
through the Admirality Arch to his own abode of straw, came 
to rest, intellectually tired but professionally happy by reason 
of his contact with one of THE GREAT MEN OF THE 
FUTURE — Mr. C. Nacnud Senoj. 


? f 

| When writing home for coffee, be sure you order f 

s "FAZENDA" l 


? Imported, roasted and packed by State f 

| of San Paulo (Brazil) Pure Coffee Co. Ltd. 2 

London. Bears Government Seal — 9 

| Guaranteed freshly-roasted and ground. f 

| ^6T I 

| Specially packed in air-tight tins to preserve fresh- t 
t hess and aroma of the Coffee. It is cheaper than tea. t 

i i 



One came away from "Strife" feeling patronisingly indulgent 
towards the R.D.S., one came away from "The Silver Box" 
tinglingly awake to the message of a great play. And that is 
the measure of the progress made by the Ruhleben Dramatic 
Society in the last few months. 

One little criticism and then 1*11 proeeed to "gyre and 
gimble in the wabe" of merited laudation. Several of the prin- 
cipal actors smudged over their incidental business. For instance 
Mr. Drummond, who, in the last act, should have been following 
with feverish anxiety the progress of his case, was apparently 
waiting patiently for the end of the play and bed-time. But such 
a point passed unnoticed in the general vividness, virility and 
sincerity of the acting. 

G. Merrit WAS Jones. He ex- 
pressed not only the discontented, 
blustering drunkard, but the tragedy 
in the soul of that drunkard, when 
struggling darkly against overwhelming 
circumstance. J. E. G. Burgoyns as 
Mrs. Jones was also excellent ; he 
should perhaps have been a trifle 
more subdued and monotonous, but his 
conception of the character was 
consistent and impressive. C. F. 
Drummond was a delightfully fatuous 
M. P. and both he and R. L. Aiston 
as Mrs. Barthwick made excellent use 
of the comedy situations. R. L. 
Anderson was good, though a little 
too strong for his part, he only needed 
to be a fool. T. C. Eden as the 
"Unknown Lady" was irresistibly droll, 
and the minor characters, notably W. 
Horsefield, were decidedly good. 

The fineness of the production 
however consisted not in the excellence 
of individual characters, but in the 
sincere, exact and adequate expression 
of John Galsworthy's play. Heartiest 
thanks Mr. Weiland. 

C. H. B. sw~*i^- 


|i"ii„,i'' M|| ll |i"i| U |i'%,|inM ,, i|ii^ 



/ it is unnecessary to add to your burdens by waiting j 

f an hour in the queue. J 

> The officially appointed ( 


5 will collect and deliver promptly large or small Orders € 

3 from the Canteens. C 

i Orders collected by our representatives (who wear % 

f a red band) between the hours: \ 

l 8—9 a. m. 1—2 p. m. \ 

£_ Tarif f 5% % 

Russian Tailor 

Grand stand no. i 

(Next door to Catholic 



Choice of Materials. 

Books, Music 

and War Japs 

s applied at tlie phortest 
possible notice 


No extra charge, not even 
for postage. 


Apply between 2 p. m. and 
4 p. m. to 

F. L. Mussett 

Barrack 5, Box 22. 


THE interest in the Cricket has once again risen to a high 
pitch on account of Barrack Five's defeat at the hands 
of Eleven. Barracks 5 and 10 have now lost one game each 
and it seems hardly possible for either team to lose again before 
the season is out — but cricket is a funny game and it is 
hard to say just what may happen. 

Barrack 2, after a good start, has failed twice within 
the last ten days, 51 v. Bar. 10 and 90 v. Bar. 3 is hardly 
satisfactory for a team such as No. 2. The game between 

3 and 2 was marked by an apparent wish of the "2" men 
to throw away their wickets, runs were attempted where they 
were impossible and the last two wickets in the Bar. 2 first 
innings were "run-outs." 

Barrack 10 avenged their football errors by beating Bar. 4 
by 120 runs. Masterman made 41 and McGill 29 not out, 
out of a total of 174. The 4 men could only get 58 and 

4 for 2 when rain stopped play. 

F. Fortune accomplished the first Ruhleben "hat-trick" 
for Bar. 4, having clean bowled three of the 8 men with 
three consecutive balls. 

TABLES (U P to Aug. 1) 










































































































































is scored for 

a win. 





General Meeting of Teachers: Reorganisation. 

On Saturday, 26th July, a General Meeting of nearly 
100 Teachers of the Camp school was held in the Loft of 
Barrack 6, fe> hear the Report of the Committee, (see ad- 
vertisement-pages) and to elect a new Committee. 

This latter action was the result of Evolution, and not, 
as with so many other Camp Committees, of Revolution ; for 
the School has developed such large and varied activities that 
some reorganisation has become inevitable. The old Committee 
decided to retire after having suggested what, in view of its 
experience, would be the best scheme of reorganisation. 

With slight amendment, the General Meeting adopted this 
scheme of dividing the school into Nine Departments, based 
on the classes already in existence and those desirable and 
likely to be formed in the immediate f uture : viz. 1) French, 
2) German & English ; 3) Spanish (together with Italian, 
Russian & Dutch) ; 4) Science and Mathematics ; 5) En- 
gineering ; 6) Nautical ; 7) Handicrafts ; 8) Commercial ; 9) Arts. 

For these Departments were elected as Members of Com- 
mittee, with the duties of organising and developing their respective 
departments the following Representatives : 1) Mr. Boole, 
2) Prof Patchett; 3) Mr. Heather; 4) Dr. Blagden; 5) Mr. A. 
M. Pennington ; 6) Captain Henriksen ; 7) Mr. Venables ; 8) 
Mr. Wimpfheimer ; 9) Mr. Bodin. 






originated and conducted by 



BILL HEAD8. MENÜS. Bills for Concerts and 


Printer of the Ruhleben Song in 

SONG OF 1914. 

A few of the lauer are still 




Washing of all kinds ironed, slarched 
and repaired at moderate prices. 




Joseph ^V^tniri 

(late of Nugget Company) 

Best srjoe-polisl) in tl>e world. 

Used by mel 1913 Leipzic Exhibition. 

Corner Bar. 10. Business- hours 6- lOa.m 

SMALL ADS: Rates— 50 Pfennigs per 
insertion of two lines. 

FOR SÄLE: Small album of 18 Camp 
Sketches. M. 5.— Cheap. Exch. & Mart. 

TENNIS RACQUETS repaired and re- 
strung. S. Flitton. Bar. 5 B. 


Together with these representatives of departments were 
elected : Chairman, Mr. A. C. Ford ; Secretary & Treasurer, 
Mr. F. Manning; School Requisites Manager, Mr. F. H. Smith; 
these officials in addition to their duties as members of the 
General Committee, form a Sub-committee to carry into effect 
the wishes of the General Committee, and to> carry on the 
routine of administrative detail. At the unanimous wish of the 
Meeting, Capt. Henriksen was elected Assistant Secretary. 

The new Committee has already started work : schemes 
for the Organisation and development of the several departments 
are being prepared and will be announced shortly to the Camp: 
the Sub-committee meets daily from 3 — 4.30 in the School 
Office (shed between Barracks 2 and 3) where all enquiries 
and Communications should be addressed and where a Notice 
Board for School Announcements will be found. 

Though new classes are being formed daily and the re- 
organisation is being worked out now, the Committee has thought 
it advantageous that all classes having been at work for at least 
ten weeks should have a short Holiday. Füll work will be 
resumed during the week commencing 22nd August. 

A. C. F. 


R. X. D. 

The Ruhleben Express Delivery has 
thoroughly improved its Organisation. 

LAR POST-OFFICE SERVICE, such as forwarding par- 
cels from one person to another within the Camp, 
Registered letters, Special express letters, etc., etc. 


9 Builder & Contractor of 45 & 46 4> 

Lower Marsh, London S. E. (oppo- 
site Waterloo Stn.) has opened a 
Carpentry Workshop at Ruhleben. 
First Shed opposite Barrack 5. 



= 0=0=0 = 00 

R. X. D. 

The Ruhleben Express Delivery has 
thoroughly improved its Organisation. 

LÄR POST-OFFICE SERVICE, such as forwarding par- 
cels from one person to another within the Camp, 
Registered letters, Special express letters, etc., etc. 


jQetiers io tße Gditor 

>ir : 

In No. 1 of your magazine, you announced my intention 
of opening a new winter season on Sept. 5th, by the rendering 
of "Hiawatha". It is with great regret that I have to inform 
you that owing to the very unfortunate attitude adopted with 
regard to my work for the Camp by my fellow professional mu- 
sicians, it will be .quite impossible for me to prooeed with my 
conoert work and do justice to myself and the Camp. On the 
other hand, immediately fairer treatment and a proper Co- 
operation is accorded me, I shall throw myself heart and soul 
into the work of providing entertainment for the Camp in 
the Coming winter as I did throughout the last. I feel I may 
not close without thanking my amateur colleagues of the choir 
and orchestra who supported me so loyally throughout the past 

Thanking you for giving publicity to this letter, 





Hand-sewn or wooden - pegged. 

Don't rely on amateurs! 
Good work guaranteed! 


The Shoemakers' Shop, DiVID ORBELL, 

Bond Street. W. 


Professional Hair-dresser 

Grand -Stand 

First-class Pedicnre 



8 — 12.- a. m. 
2—5 p. m. 


8—11.30 only. 

J. S. PREUSS, Printer by Appointment to ihe Royal Court, Berlin S., Dresdenerstr. 43. 










Grand Stand Hall. 


Suits sponged and pressed: 1,50 M. 
(For tyose on Relief List: 1,00 M.) 


Call and inspect my large 
assortment of winter samples. 


The Shopping Centre 

Bond Street RUHLEBEN. 



Tinned Foods, Fruit & Greengrocery 

Refreshment Bar 

Grocery & Provisions 

Dry Stores 


Boots & Shoes 



Articles not regularly in stock in the "Dry 

\> Stores" may be ordernd at the "Special Orders 

Window" and can pe delivered usually in 

a week. 




3— J3=^E«Cs o o — -o— o— o— 0--0--0 - Ott 

MAnP" IN PVRMANY Bv T.A. Barton for the Education Committee of ihe 
IIIHUL 111 ULRliInlll Engländerlager für Zivilgefangene, Ruhleben, Berlin. 

>■'■■'■•'■.--■• ■ ■■■ ■ ■.;■■ 










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